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发动机试验台架使用操作流程

   2019-05-09 1800
核心提示:用于WD615发动机的测试,检测发动机的机油压力、水温、进气压力、转速、电瓶电压的数值是否正常,测试发动机是否正常运转,从而判断发动机是否有故障,会出现的故障及原因分析。

01

WD615发动机实现的功能

Achievable functions of WD615 engine

实现的功能:

Achievable functions:


用于WD615发动机的测试,检测发动机的机油压力、

水温、进气压力、转速、电瓶电压的数值是否正常,

测试发动机是否正常运转,从而判断发动机

是否有故障,会出现的故障及原因分析。

For testing WD615 engine,

test whether the oil pressure, water temperature,

intake pressure, rotational speed and battery

voltage are normal, and whether the engine is

running normally, so as to determine whether

the engine has fault or not, possible fault and

analyze causes.

02

技术要求

Technical requirements

主要技术参数:

Main technical parameters:


① 试验台架长*宽*高:2950*1500*1655mm

Length *width *height of test bench:

2,950*1,500*1,655mm

② 机油压力表数值:0-1.0Mpa

Oil pressure gauge value: 0-1.0Mpa

③ 水温表数值:0-120°C

Water thermometer value: 0-120°C

④ 进气压力表数值:0-0.1Mpa

Manifold pressure gauge value: 0-0.1Mpa

⑤ 转速表数值:0-3000rpm

Tachometer value: 0-3,000rpm

⑥ 电瓶电压数值:0-32V

Battery voltage value: 0-32V

03

发动机试制前操作流程

Engine before trial-manufacture operation process

用龙门吊架将发动机吊起,把前后支撑板用螺栓

连接到发动机上;

Lift the engine with a gantry hanger and connect

the front and rear support plate bolts to the engine.

发动机吊装到位,用前后支撑板连接发动机至

试验台的悬置支撑架;

Lift the engine into place and connect

the engine to the test bench suspended

brace with the front and rear support plates.

通过调整悬置支撑架螺杆高度,发动机调整到位;

By adjusting the screw height of the

suspended brace, the engine is adjusted in place.


使发动机风扇中心高度对准水箱和中冷器的中心高度;

To align the center of the engine fan to the center

height of water tank and intercooling.


发动机风扇到试验台前端的中冷固定架40mm;

Engine fan to the test bench front-end

intercooled fixed mount 40mm.

前支撑连接螺栓:8只M12*30

外六角螺栓  配平垫连接;

Front support connecting bolt: 8 M12*30

hexagon bolts with flat gasket connection;

后支撑连接螺栓:2只M14*1.5*30

4只M14*1.5*50  外六角螺栓  配平垫和弹垫

Front support connecting bolt: 2 M14*1.5*30

4 M14*1.5*50

hexagon bolts with flat gasket and spring washer.

水箱的进出接口和中冷器进出接口通过硅胶管

分别与发动机进行连接,用卡箍固定牢靠;

The inlet and outlet interface of the water tank

and the inlet and outlet interface of the intercooler

are connected to the engine respectively through

the silicone tube, and the clamp is used to fix firmly.

加注完防冻液后检查管路连接情况,

确保发动机点火后能够正常运转,无泄漏现象;

After filling the antifreeze, the pipeline

connection is checked to ensure that the engine

can run normally after ignition without leakage.

连接暖风接头:高压管内径φ22mm;

Connecting warm air joint:

Inside diameter of high-pressure pipe φ22mm.

连接膨胀水壶:两根φ8mm蛇皮管,

一根接水箱小循环接头,另一根接暖风接头处;

一根高压管φ22mm接水箱出水连接管,

主要用于加注防冻液,用卡箍固定牢靠;

Connecting expansion kettle: two φ8mm

flexible conduits,

one is connected to the small circulating joint

of the water tank,

the other is connected to the warm air joint;

a high pressure pipe φ22mm is connected

to the outlet connection pipe of the water tank,

which is mainly used for filling the antifreeze;

the clamp is used to fix firmly.


加注防冻液后检查管路的连接情况,

确保发动机点火后能够正常运转,无泄漏现象;

After filling the antifreeze,

the pipeline connection is checked to ensure

that the engine can run normally

after ignition without leakage.

连接发动机空滤到试验台的空滤总成;

Connect the engine air filter to the air filter

assembly of the test bench.

涡轮增压口排气端到试验台的排气管,

用卡箍和固定牢靠;

Connect the exhaust end of the turbocharged

port to the exhaust pipe of the test bench

and fix firmly with a clamp.

连接手拉油门支架和熄火缸;

Connect hand-held throttle bracket

and flameout cylinder.


连接柴油管线,进、回油管;

Connect diesel pipeline, inlet and return pipe.

连接电瓶线到电瓶开关和起动机;

Connect battery cable to the battery switch

and starter.

连接检测用的传感器等其它管线线束,

将其固定牢靠位置;

Connect other pipeline harness,

such as sensors for detection,

and hold it firmly in position.

转速传感器及线束

水温传感器及线束

电瓶电压线束直接接起动机

机油压力线束及接头

进气压力线束及接头

连接控制台手拉油门拉线至支架和熄火缸;

检查管线的连接,确保连接牢靠、无误。

Connect the hand-held throttle stay of

control panel to the bracket and flameout cylinder;

Finally, check the pipeline connection to ensure

that the connection is reliable and correct.

04

发动机性能验证操作流程

Operation process of engine performance verification

打开点火钥匙开关,电瓶电压表显示24V;

Turn on the ignition key switch,

the battery voltage meter displays 24V.

通过控制手拉油门大小,实现发动机的不同转速;

By controlling the hand-held throttle,

the different rotational speeds

of the engine can be realized.

分别读取控制台上的仪表数值,

与整车上的参考值对比:检测发动机的运转情况,

可读取的数值机油压力、水温、进气压力、

发动机转速、电瓶电压。

Read the meter value on the control panel,

respectively, and compare with the reference value

on the vehicle: Test engine operation, readable

numerical oil pressure, water temperature, intake

pressure, engine rotational speed and battery

voltage.

① 转速600rpm时:机油压力0.5mpa。【怠速】

Rotational speed 600rpm:

Oil pressure 0.5mpa [idle speed]

② 转速1000rpm时:机油压力0.6mpa

Rotational speed 1,000rpm:

Oil pressure 0.6mpa

③ 转速1500rpm时:机油压力0.6mpa

进气压力0.01mpa

Rotational speed 1,500rpm,

oil pressure 0.6mpa,

intake pressure 0.01mpa

④ 转速2000rpm时:机油压力0.65mpa

进气压力0.02mpa

Rotational speed 2,000rpm,

oil pressure 0.65mpa,

intake pressure 0.02mpa

⑤ 在发动机运转30分钟后,水温表显示数值约50℃。

After the engine has been running for 30 minutes,

the water thermometer shows about 50 ℃

松开手拉油门,关闭点火钥匙,发动机停止运转,

将发动机吊装下来,发动机测试完毕。

Release the hand-held throttle,

turn off the ignition key,

stop the engine from running,

lift the engine down,

and finish the engine test.

05

原理故障表

Principle fault list

A. 在点火后通过控制台上的仪表数值的大小,

判断被检测的发动机的运转是否正常。

Determine whether the tested engine is running

properly or not through the size of the meter

value on the control panel after ignition.


B. 故障分析:

Fault Analysis:


1. 怠速不稳的原因:

Reason of rough idling

① 进气系统。

Intake system


第一个原因是进气系统,进气管以及各种阀门的泄漏。

空气或者是从进气管进入,还有废气进入到进气管,

会造成混合器过浓、过稀,使发动机燃烧不正常。

节气门和进气道积垢过多。怠速进气量的失准。

The first reason is the leakage of the intake system,

intake pipe and various valves.

Air enters from the intake pipe and exhaust gas

entering into the intake pipe will cause the mixer

to be too dense and too thin, causing the engine

to burn abnormally. There is excessive fouling on

the throttle and air inlet. Misalignment of

idle air inflow.

② 燃油系统。

Fuel system


若大泵有滴漏或堵塞现象,使其无法过油,

从而造成混合气过浓或过稀,使个别气缸工作不良,

导致发动机怠速不稳。燃油压力故障。油压过低,

喷油量减少使混合气过稀;油压过高,

实际喷油量增加,使混合气过浓。喷油量失准。

If the large pump has dripping or

blocking phenomenon, it cannot filter the oil,

resulting in the mixture is too dense or too thin,

which makes individual cylinders work poorly and

leads to unstable engine idle speed.

Fuel pressure fault. When the oil pressure is too

low, the mixture becomes too thin due to the

decrease of fuel-injection quantity; When the oil

pressure is too high, the actual fuel-injection

quantity increases, which causes too thick mixture.

Misalignment of fuel-injection quantity.

③ 机械机构。

Mechanical structure


第一是配气机构,配气机构故障导致个别气缸的功率

下降过多,从而使功率不平衡。

第二是气门工作面与气门座圈积碳过多,

造成气门密封不严。

第三是发动体和活塞连杆机构,

它有故障也会使压缩压力不一致。

The first is the valve actuating mechanism,

the failure of valve actuating mechanism

causes the power of individual cylinders to

decrease too much and the power is unbalanced.

The second is valve face and valve retainer

have too much carbon deposit, causing valve seal

is not firm. The third is the actuator and

piston-connecting rod mechanism,

which may cause the compression

pressure to be inconsistent with faults.

④ 排气系统堵塞。

Exhaust system blocking


与三元催化器内因部因结胶、积炭、破碎等原因

造成局部堵塞或随机堵塞,就加大排气时的反压力,

使进气管真空度过低,造成发动机排气不彻底、

进气不充分,气缸性能变差。发动机怠速发抖。

进气不顺畅可能造成电脑记忆空气流量计故障代码。

若该故障长时间不排除,将使氧传感器长期在

恶劣条件下工作,加速了氧传感器的损坏,

造成发动机故障灯亮。

When the three-way catalyst causes local or

random blocking due to gumming, carbon

deposition and fragmentation, it will increase

the back pressure of exhaust gas, make the intake

pipe vacuum too low, and cause the engine exhaust

gas to be incomplete and the intake air not

sufficient. As a result, the working performance of

the cylinder becomes worse. Engine idle trembling.

Air intake problems may also cause computer

memory air flow meter fault code. If the fault is not

ruled out for a long time, it will make the oxygen

sensor workingin harsh conditions for a long time,

accelerate the damage of the oxygen sensor, and

cause the engine fault light to turn on.

2. 水温高的原因:

Reason of high-water temperature

① 水箱缺水。

Water tank water depletion

发动机是通过水冷的方式来降温,虽然水箱里的

冷却液消耗的比较慢,但是也有消耗,

有些车主没有检查冷却液的习惯,

水箱长时间缺水,导致水温高。

The engine is cooled by water cooling, although

the coolant consumption in the water tank is slow,

there is also consumption. Some owners do not

check the coolant, the water tank is short of water

for a long time, resulting in high water temperature.

② 节温器故障。

Thermostat fault

有些车主开车没走几公里就发现水温升高,

也没有发现哪个水管有漏水的地方,

像这种故障可能是节温器打不开,

汽车冷却系统不能进行大循环,导致水温高。

Some car owners find that the water temperature

rise after driving a few kilometers, and there was

no leak in the water pipe. This kind of fault may

be that thermostat cannot be opened, the car

cooling system cannot carry on a general

circulation, resulting in high water temperature.

③ 水管漏水。

Water pipe leakage

开车过程中发现汽车有漏水的地方,

检查是水管老化、破裂漏水,

这种情况相对来说容易发现,

到维修店更换相应的水管即可。

In the course of driving, if finding out where

the car has water leakages, check the water

pipe aging and breakage. It is easy to find it,

and you can replace the corresponding water

pipe at the maintenance shop.

④ 水箱散热不良。

Bad water tank heat dissipation

有些车主直接用水当作冷却液,

长时间使用水做媒体会导致发动机及水箱内产生水锈,

水箱散热不良导致水温高,

想要解决这种办法是把水锈先排除,

然后清洗或更换水箱。

Some car owners directly use water as coolant.

Long-term use of water as the media will lead

to water rust in the engine and water tank, the

bad heat dissipation of the water tank leads to

high water temperature. Solving this problem is

to remove the rust first, then clean or replace

the water tank.


⑤ 水泵故障。

Water pump fault

水泵是汽车冷却系统的核心,现在汽车用的水泵

大多数是叶片式的,长时间泵水后叶片会打磨掉,

水系统不循环水温高。

The water pump is the core part of cooling system

in the car. Now most of the water pumps used in

car are blade-type. After working for a long time,

the blades will be polished away, which will cause

the water system does not circulate and the water

temperature is high.

⑥ 缸床垫变形。

Cylinder mattress is deformed

有些车主反应汽车水温高,但在实际用车过程中

并没有发现有漏水的地方,另外水箱内的冷却液

消耗的比较快,这种情况是发动机缸床垫变形或

破损导致少量冷却水进入发动机燃烧,

所以会出现汽车行驶一段时间后水箱缺水,水温高。

Some car owners reacted to the high water

temperature of the car, but actually there was

no water leakage when using the car. In addition,

a small amount of cooling water enters into the

engine due to deformation or damage of the

engine cylinder mattress. In this situation, the

coolant in the tank was consumed more quickly,

so there will be a water shortage in the water

tank after the car has been running for a while

and the water temperature is high.

⑦ 电子扇故障。

Electronic fan failure

汽车水箱内的热量通过电子风扇转动来散发出来,

如果电子扇不工作热量散不掉,汽车水温肯定会升高。

The heat from water tank on the car is emitted by

the rotation of the electronic fan. If the electric fan

does not work, the water temperature of the car will

definitely rise.

⑧ 传感器故障。

Sensor fault

汽车上的水温传感器控制水箱电子风扇的运转,

如果水温传感器有故障,没有信号启动散热风扇,

水温也会升高。

The water temperature sensor on the car controls

the operation of the electronic fan in water tank.

If the water temperature sensor is faulty and there

is no signal to activate the cooling fan, the water

temperature will be rose.

⑨ 线束故障。

Harness fault


汽车上的线束是整个汽车的神经,

如果线路有故障也会间接导致水温高。

The harness on the car is the core part

of the whole car. If the line is faulty,

it will indirectly lead to high water temperature.

3. 电压低的原因:

Reason for low voltage:

① 第一种导致汽车电瓶电压过低情况的发生的原因

就是长期的闲置汽车,因为汽车电瓶内部构造、比重、

温度、物质不纯的原因,电瓶往往会发生自放电,

一般在一天内会放掉0.5~1%电量,

如果汽车长期的闲置不用,就容易导致电瓶放电过度,

无法继续充电使用情况的发生。

The long-term idle car is the first reason to cause

the low voltage of car battery. Because of the

internal structure, specific gravity, temperature

and material impureness of the car battery, the

battery will often self-discharge, and will usually

be discharged 0.5~1% of electricity in one day.

If the car is not used for a long time, it will easily

lead to excessive battery discharge and be unable

to continue charging.

② 现如今,普通的汽车电瓶一般都采用的贫液式设计,

电解液里面的水分通常也会自然而然的渐渐挥发,

会逐渐形成白色硫酸铅化,在汽车电瓶内部极板严重

硫酸铅化后,再想要去充电、补水也是不行的,

是无法恢复其容量的。

Nowadays, ordinary car batteries generally was

designed as lean liquid type. The moisture in the

electrolyte will be gradually volatilized, and white

lead sulfate will be gradually formed. After the

internal electrode of the car battery is severely

sulfated, recharging the battery cannot restore

its capacity, and hydration is also not enough.

③ 由于汽车电瓶内部是纯化学反应,它主要利用原理是,

将电能储存成化学能储存,在需要使用放电的时候,

将化学能转换成电能,因此由于技术的原因电瓶本身

也是有寿命限制的,一般的电瓶本身寿命基本也只是

在充放电300次,当使用寿命差不多的时候,

就会出现电压过低的情况了。

Since the interior of the car battery is a purely

chemical reaction, its main principle is to store

electrical energy into chemical energy storage.

When the discharge is required, the chemical

energy is converted into electrical energy.

Therefore, the battery has a service life limit due

to technical problems. The service life of a typical

battery is basically only 300 times of charging

and discharging. When the service life is

almost the same, the voltage will be too low.

4. 机油压力高的原因:

Reasons for high oil pressure

① 机油粘度过大。

Oil viscosity is too large

机油粘度的大小表明了机油流动时的内摩擦阻力大小。

机油粘度的大小与发动机温度有关,发动机温度低时,

机油粘度大;反之,发动机温度高时,机油粘度小。

机油粘度大时流动性差但密封性好,泄漏量少。

如果机油粘度超过规定值,机油在润滑系统内流动

阻力会增大,同时压力升高。发动机温度低或机油

本身粘度大(因对机油牌号选用不当,即机油牌号

不适合环境温度,如冬季选用了夏季粘度大的机油)

机油压力会高。

The oil viscosity indicates the amount of internal

friction resistance when the oil flows. The oil

viscosity is related to the engine temperature.

When the engine temperature is low, the viscosity

of the oil is large. Conversely, when the engine

temperature is high, the oil viscosity is small. When

oil viscosity is large, the fluidity is poor, but the

leakproof is good, and the leakage amount is small.

If the oil viscosity exceeds the specified value,

the flow resistance of the oil in the lubrication

system will be increased. At the same, the pressure

will be increased. This shows that the engine

temperature is low or the oil viscosity is large,

the oil pressure will be high. Because the oil grade

is not properly selected, that is the oil grade is not

suitable for the ambient temperature. For example,

the large oil viscosity for summer is selected

in winter.

② 压力润滑部位间隙过小或机油细滤器堵塞润滑油路。

The gap of pressure lubrication part is too small

or the oil fine filter block the lubricating oil to flow.

润滑系机油循环回路的流动阻力等于并联支路机油

流动阻力的倒数之和。压力润滑部位的凸轮轴轴颈、

连杆轴颈、曲轴轴颈、摇臂轴等,这些润滑部位

如果配合间隙过小,细滤清器的滤芯过脏使机油

回路堵塞,以及限压阀调整压力过高等,

均会使润滑系油路的流动阻力增大,压力升高。

It shows that the flow resistance of the lubricating

oil circulation circuit is equal to the sum of the

reciprocal of the parallel branch oil flow resistance.

If the matching clearance of the camshaft journal,

the connecting rod journal, the crankshaft journal

and the rocker shaft on the pressure lubrication

part is too small and the filter element of the fine

filter is dirty, the oil circuit will be blocked. And if

the pressure of the pressure limiting valve is

adjusted too high, the flow resistance of the

lubricating oil circuit will be increased and the

pressure will be increased.

③ 限压阀调整不当。

The pressure of the pressure limiting

valve is adjusted improperly

由限压阀组成和工作原理可知,限压阀是靠平衡弹簧

和球阀来限制机油压力的,并使之机油压力不超过

技术文件的规定值。机油压力超过规定值时,

便克服弹簧的弹力将阀门推开向系统内泄压,

机油压力低于弹簧弹力时,阀门在弹簧的作用下关闭,

从而将压力限制在规定的范围内。润滑系的机油压力

取决于弹簧弹力的大小,如果调整的弹簧弹力过大,

会使系统内的机油压力过高。

According to the composition and working principle

of the pressure limiting valve, the pressure limiting

valve relies on the balance spring and the ball valve

to limit the oil pressure, and the oil pressure does

not exceed the specified value of the technical

documents. When the oil pressure exceeds the

specified value, the valve is pushed away from the

spring by the spring force of spring to relieve

pressure in the system. When the oil pressure is

lower than the spring force, the valve is closed with

the action of the spring to limit the pressure within

the specified range. From this point of view,

the oil pressure in the lubrication system depends

on the spring force of the spring. If the adjusted

spring force is too large, the oil pressure in the

system will be too large.

④ 机油滤清器堵塞。

Engine oil filter is blocked

当机油滤清器堵塞而不能流通时,设在滤清器底座

上的安全阀就被顶开,机油便不经过滤而直接

进入主油道。如果安全阀的开启压力调的过高,

当滤清器被堵塞时就不能及时顶开,机油泵压力升高,

内漏增加,对主油道的供油量相应减少,

引起油压的下降。应经常保持机油滤清器的清洁;

正确地调整安全阀的开启压力(一般为0.35-0.45Mpa);

及时更换安全阀的弹簧或研磨钢珠与阀座的配合面,

恢复其正常的工作性能。

When the oil filter is clogged and the oil cannot be

flowed, the safety valve installed on the filter base

is opened and the oil will directly flow into the main

oil passage without filtering. If the opening

pressure of the safety valve is too large, it cannot

be opened in time when the filter is blocked.

Therefore,if the pressure of the oil pump is

increased, the internal leakage will be increased,

and the oil supply to the main oil passage is

correspondingly reduced, which will decline oil

pressure. It should be always kept the oil filter

clean; Adjust the opening pressure of the

safety valve correctly (it is generally 0.35-0.45Mpa);

Replace the spring of the safety valve or the mating

surface of the grinding steel ball with the valve seat

in time to restore its normal working performance.

5. 进气压力低的原因:

Reasons for low intake pressure

① 空气需求量大于供给量。

Air demand is greater than supply

检查供气管道上的阀门是否开启或系统上是否

有漏气现象,减少用气量。

Check if the valve on the air supply pipe is open

or not, if there is air leakage on the system or not,

which reduce the air consumption.

② 油气分离器堵塞。

Oil and gas separator is blocked

由于油路系统中或多或少存在某些杂质,

滤芯工作一段时间后,会发生阻塞现象使压缩空气

通过滤芯的阻力增加,影响机组的正常工作。

操作人员根据监控器面板上的信号,及时更换滤芯。

Due to more or less impurities in the oil system,

the filter element will be blocked after it is operated

for a period of time, which will increase the

resistance of the compressed air through the filter

element and affect the normal operation.

Therefore, the operator should replace the filter

element in time according tothe signal displayed

on the monitor panel.

③ 空气过滤器堵塞。

Air filter is clogged

空气滤清器的作用是将吸入的空气加以过滤,

保证进入空气压缩机的空气清洁干净。

如果空气过滤器滤芯堵塞严重将影响到

机组的进气量。所以必须及时更换其滤芯。

The air filter is to filter the inhaled air to ensure

that the air entering into the air compressor is

clean. If the air filter element is clogged, it will

affect the intake air volume of the machine.

Therefore, it is necessary to replace its filter

element in time.

④ 压力调节器失灵或损坏。

Pressure regulator is malfunctioned or damaged

压力调节系统的功能是根据客户用气量的大小,

自动调节压缩机,以便达到供需平衡。

所以要对损坏的压力调节器及时更换,

对失灵的压力调节器及时调整。

The pressure regulation system is to automatically

adjust the compressor according to the amount of

gas used by the customer in order to achieve a

alance between supply and demand. Therefore,

it is necessary to replace the damaged pressure

regulator in time, and adjust the malfunctioning

pressure regulator in time.

⑤ 进气阀不能完全打开。

Air intake valve is not fully open

进气阀的功能是控制进气量。机组满负荷运行时,

进气阀处于全开状态。当用户所需用气量减小时,

由气量调节装置向进气阀输入压缩空气,

使进气阀开度减小,从而减少压缩机的进气量,

进气阀故障将影响机组所带负荷的多少。

The intake valve is to control the amount of intake

air. When the machine is running at full load,

the intake valve is fully open. When the amount of

gas required by the user is reduced, the device of

air volume adjusting will input compressed air to

the intake valve to reduce the opening degree of

the intake valve, which will reduce the intake air

amount of the compressor. The Intake valve

failure will affect the load on the unit.

⑥ 控制管路漏气。

Control line is leaked.

空气压缩机控制管路漏气将使进气阀无法

全部打开以至于机组负荷无法带满。

Air leakage from the air compressor control line

will prevent the intake valve from opening

completely so that the unit load cannot be

fully loaded.


 
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